New positive inotropic agents in the treatment of left ventricular dysfunction
Leonardo De Luca, Paola Proietti, Gian Luca Palombaro, Alessandro Battagliese, Annalisa Celotto, Chiara Bucciarelli-Ducci, Francesco Fedele
Three major classes of inotropic agents have been clinically evaluated in patients with left ventricular dysfunction: a) agents that increase the intracellular concentration of cyclic adenosine monophosphate by stimulating the beta-adrenergic receptor or inhibiting phosphodiesterase; b) drugs that increase the intracellular sodium concentration; c) the new calcium-sensitizing drugs.
This review will focus on the newest drug for each of the above-mentioned classes of inotropic agents. Moreover, we present a new protocol which provides the use of levosimendan in patients with post-ischemic left ventricular dysfunction.